cyber security

cyber security

What is the definition of cyber security?

Communication over the Internet occurs in cyberspace, which is described as an electronic medium for computer networks. This vast network makes up hundreds of thousands of networked computers, servers that carry large amounts of data, routers, modems, and switches. These are connected by tens of thousands of strong fiber-optic cables that run on land and under water, known as submarine cables. As a result, maintaining these networks is everyone's responsibility, both individually and collectively.

Keeping this network secure for individuals, businesses, and governments is now a huge task that requires significant investment in both manpower and infrastructure.

cyber security

Cyber Security Concepts:

Individuals, small businesses, large organizations, and government agencies are increasingly focusing on securing their systems against all kinds of cyber threats as a result of the increasing number of cyber threats. Cybersecurity, in layman's terms, is the process of defending autonomous computers, a network of interconnected computers, individuals, organizations, government data and highly sensitive national security against malicious cyber attacks.
Cyber security principles and concepts for beginners include knowing how to protect yourself from email scams, malware, viruses, wi-fi security, financial scams, phishing, and safe use of internet resources like social media, among other things. Smartphones are becoming an increasingly important part of our daily lives and require some basic protection. To protect themselves, beginners should understand some basic ideas in cybersecurity and subscribe to antivirus software for personal computers and small business networks.

Automatic or manual two-step or three-step company data backups should be available on premises in case of data loss due to computer failure or hacking.

Cyber security courses:

Attending a basic course can help beginners understand the basics of cyber security in simple words such as securing Wi-Fi/router/modem connections, antivirus software, safe internet browsing, risks of clicking on unknown links, spotting phishing sites, common scams, and scams In SIM swapping, secure use of credit cards and digital payment apps, and more are covered in the basics. These are some of the cybersecurity basics for beginners that must be grasped before entering the cyberspace. However, before delving into this great topic, a newbie should be well versed with the basics of cyber security.

Beginners can prepare for the course by reading some materials such as

1- “Cyber Threat, Know the threat to overcome the threat, by Bob Gurley.

2- “NIST’s Cyber Security Framework.”

3- “The Five Most Common Cyber Attacks” is a list of the most common cyber attacks. from CSO.

What are the types of electronic attacks?

In recent years, there have been a large number of new types of cyber attacks. Many of them are involved in:

1- Denial-of-service attacks by sending massive spam emails or messages aimed at disrupting organizations' servers and websites.

2- Bot attacks through a network of real and fake computer systems spread across multiple continents to hide their origin. They can be used to spread social media messages and emails to target an individual or organization, refuse service, or steal confidential data.

The main areas of cybersecurity:

The CIA's triad, or core areas of cybersecurity, are confidentiality, information, and availability.
It's all about information. It all depends on the confidentiality of information about the organization. Each person only needs a certain type and level of information, and the amount of information available rises as one advances up the corporate ladder. With a password and other security methods, each employee is properly trained to secure and maintain the confidentiality of all information available to him. There is a dedicated department responsible for this for the entire organization, which is protected by a proper firewall.
This is critical to data integrity, as it ensures accuracy, reliability, and consistency of data. It should not be subject to unauthorized access, corruption, tampering or disclosure. Should this occur, there should be a well-defined procedure for threat detection and isolation, as well as data recovery. Access to information is enabled through comprehensive risk assessments and appropriate hardware and software integration. It is tailored to the type of company, the sensitivity of the information present, the overall risk profile, and all potential weaknesses.


It is the duty of every person to be familiar with some concepts of cyber security. If you want to keep pace with the times and enter the digital world, you must learn how to protect yourself from any attack that may threaten your data and privacy.

I hope that I succeeded in sharing some important ideas on this topic, and do not forget to share your opinions with us 🙂

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web programming

How do I enter the field of web programming?

The field of the web known as Web Programming or Web Development, which simply includes the design and construction of electronic pages and databases for the site.

  • According to data from, web programmers' salaries are estimated to be around $79,000 per year, and of course the number increases depending on your savvy.
  • Front end developer salaries are around $92,000 per year. In contrast, back-end web developer salary is known to be $93,000 per year.

Web programmers:

First: Front-end development

It means user interface design, and it is simply responsible for designing the shape of the site that is presented to users, and is responsible for aesthetics such as colors, page layout, and facilitating the user's use of the site.

Second: Back-end development field:

It is the section in which programming is carried out and supervises the part that you do not see on the site, such as databases. It contains all the data of site users or site products in addition to

  Server and storage management, as well as dealing with errors in the data and dealing with them.

What programming languages are used in Front-end and Back-end:

web programming

There are three techniques that we must learn to master the front-end:

  1. HTML is the language that builds the website structure
  2. CSS language, which is specific to colors, images, and formatting in the site, that is, it gives aesthetics to the structure of the site that was built with html
  3. It is the JavaScript language that adds vitality to the site and allows it to interact with the visitor, but only at the browser level

As for the back-end, the 5 most important languages that can be used in website programming are:

  • PHP
  • Java
  • Python
  • Node.js

It should be noted that it is not necessary to master all of them, it is sufficient to master one well with all its tools to be able to program your site.

When you master the skills required in the front-end and back-end then it is called a full-stack webdeveloper

If you want to become a full-stack developer, you have to take html, css, javascript, php…etc courses.
A site can help you It is a very useful site.

What are the best internationally accredited certificates in the field of web:

  • Zend PHP Certification – php
  • Zend Framework Certification – ZF
  • Programming in HTML5 Certificate with JavaScript and CSS3
  • MCSD Certification: Web Applications
  • Symfony Certification


You can also search for other certificates that may benefit you in the field of the web or to use platforms to work that make it easy for you to program and write code from scratch, such as WordPress, Laravel and others, but remember that in order to use these ready-made platforms, you must first know the web concepts that we mentioned in the previous article, Create your first website, show it to your friends, you can read an article Why do programmed sites occupy WordPress globally? On our site, we will learn in subsequent articles about useful technologies and web offices.
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Fifth generation wireless networks

Fifth generation wireless networks:

What are wireless networks - fifth generation networks?

Wireless networks are an important part of the Internet. The most popular type of wireless network is Wi-Fi, which allows computers to communicate with each other via radio waves.

The fifth generation (5G) is the next major stage of mobile wireless communication standards. It will provide improved spectral efficiency, higher data rates, lower latency and more power. 5G networks are expected to provide a wide range of new and innovative services such as virtual reality streaming and self-driving cars.

The evolution of wireless networks:

The evolution of wireless networks has occurred through the gradual introduction of new technologies, each addressing the shortcomings of its predecessor. Early systems used analog radio technology to transmit voice or data signals over long distances without the need for physical connections between stations. Digital technology replaced this technology in the 1990s, and it is now being replaced by the fourth generation (4G) standard based on Long Term Evolution (LTE).

In the late 19th century, physics professor Nikola Tesla discovered radio waves. In 1895, he was able to transmit signals a distance of one mile as the first wireless communication in history.

The evolution of wireless networks over time has been largely driven by increased consumer demand. “The 'one-size-fits-all' approach to enterprise networks just doesn't work anymore," said Sanjay Uppal, Vice President and General Manager, HPE Networking.

Wireless network technologies such as 3G and 4G have evolved over time. The first wireless networks were cellular networks. These used a wide range of frequencies across the electromagnetic spectrum, from about 800MHz to 2GHz. Cellular networks have enabled people to make phone calls using cell phones when they are away from their landline phones at home or at work.

What are the fifth generation networks:

 Fifth generation wireless networks

The fifth generation of wireless networks aims to provide access in all kinds of uses, including homes, cars, and moving objects. This network will be able to offer maximum speeds - up to 100 Mbps per device.

The idea is that you can do several things on your smartphone at the same time without losing any speed. Also, the new wireless network will be able to send data faster than existing 4G networks.

As a hyper-connected world, we have wireless networks everywhere. The fifth generation of these wireless networks is expected to be a mainstay in the Internet of Things.

Fifth generation network features:

Some of the key features of 5G wireless networks include significantly increased bandwidth, reduced latency, larger cellular coverage areas, and extremely low power consumption.

Some of the benefits of using 5G technologies:

1 - “Holographic” meetings:

The fifth generation network will allow the presentation of meetings using hologram technology at a high speed so that workers in a particular institution, regardless of the country in which they reside, can meet together as if they were in one place.

2- The speed of the games and the speed of downloading:

The fifth generation network will enable people to play large-sized games on their smartphones in high quality, after it was previously difficult to access these games except after downloading them to a computer. It will also allow downloading large-sized movies in a few seconds.
3- Smart homes:
Smart homes will use the 5G network to connect devices and control them wirelessly by phone, without the need to connect these devices to a central computer.
4- Self-driving cars:
Self-driving cars can use the 5G network to exchange information with each other, which could help reduce congestion, for example.
5- Surgical operations:
Experts say this new network could allow doctors to perform remote surgical procedures using robots and the Internet.

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The electronic government

The electronic government

E-government is the use of information and communication technology (ICT) to deliver government services to citizens, businesses, and other stakeholders. It can be used as a tool to improve efficiency, transparency, and accountability in the way governments deliver their services.
They use electronic processes and information technology to conduct public business, including interaction with citizens. E-government has many benefits such as increased efficiency, transparency and accountability.
E-government also uses information technology (IT) to support citizens, businesses, and other interactions with the public. These entities may be units such as provinces, municipalities, states, villages or tribes, private sector organizations; intergovernmental organizations; Or global multilateral institutions such as the United Nations.

The concept of e-government:

The Internet has changed the way we do business, do research, and get information. Increasingly, government agencies are using the power of online tools to improve efficiency and responsiveness. It is now common for governments to use technology and the internet to connect with citizens, promote transparency and encourage civic participation

The electronic government

E-government has many benefits. For example, it could reduce the need for physical contact between people and governments, which could make government operations more efficient. E-government also makes government services more accessible for disabled people who are unable to visit physical offices in person.

What are the benefits and harms of e-government?

E-government is a way to save time, money and resources such as paper. It can also help solve problems in government through centralization of information. E-government can also lead to more transparency and efficiency in government, but it also risks information overload and security issues.

Examples of successful e-government:

E-government is an emerging field. It has been recognized as one of the most promising aspects of the globalization of governance and international relations in the twenty-first century. The United States, China, Brazil, and India are successful examples of this being used.
Ecuador has also succeeded in reducing the time taken to register a new company by 50%. In addition, Chile has reduced its paperwork by 75% and increased the number of people served by 100 %.


It is an integrated series of steps that any e-government must go through in order to be able to provide an outstanding service to the beneficiaries in the digital world. It must dispense with paper first, then automate its work next, and finally go out to the beneficiaries through an electronic portal that makes it easier for them to obtain the service. The era of front office automation is over and the era of integrated work and true digital transformation has begun.

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